Bahasa Inggris SMA Exposition
An analytical exposition that proposes or suggests something.
It consists of:
• Opinion / proposal of something; and
• Reasons behind the proposal or argument.
• Sometimes what has been discussed is also expressed again in the end of the text.
This type of text has the purpose of persuading the reader with its argument. It also explains how and why the argument is proposed.
The common grammatical patterns in exposition include:
• General nouns, eg ears, zoos;
• Abstract nouns, eg policy, government;
• Technical words, eg species of animals;
• Relating verbs, eg it is important …;
• Action verbs, eg we must save …;
• Thinking verbs, eg many people believe …;
• Modal verbs, eg we must preserve …;
• Modal adverbs, eg certainly we must try …;
• Connectives, eg firstly, secondly …;
• Evaluative language, eg important, significant, valuable.
Read the text below and find the meaning of the following words. Then, find three points listed below in the test.
Avoid (kkt) : ….
Backlog (kb) : ….
Boost (kkt) : ….
Complexion (kb) : ….
Encourage (kkt) : ….
Feasible (ks) : ….
Fumbling (kki) : ….
Gathering (kb) : ….
Subsidize (kkt) : ….
Traffic jam (kb) : ….
Things that you need to identify from the text:
1. The proposal or the argument that is proposed in the text.
2. The reasons behind the argument.
3. The summary of what is being proposed
Public Transportation should be Free
If we can agree that government has some role to play in our lives, then let’s at least make it a positive one. Consider the benefits of free, fully-subsidized public transportation. First, it will motivate more people to leave their cars at home. Think of the reduction in pollution and traffic jam and insurance costs due to accidents. Greener cities, safer cities, more livable cities. More room for parks and trees. Think of the money we’ll all save by consuming less gas, spending less frequently on car repairs, and so on. That money will stay in our wallets and we could then turn around and give the economy a boost by spending it on other consumer goods or services. More jobs. Secondly, we must consider the health benefits. We’ll all walk a little more. This will reduce visits to doctors’ offices and hospitals because we’ll be healthier. We’ll have improved blood pressure, lower stress and possibly a better complexion. In addition, free transportation will encourage us to enjoy the company of our friends and family. It will become much more feasible to safely drink another glass of wine at the restaurant or have that extra beer at the family gathering. We’ll avoid the worry of getting behind the wheel with a blood-alcohol level that’s above the legal limit.
Fewer accidents, fewer tragedies, lower costs of policing and reduced court backlogs. The increased public expense in transportation should pay off in the form of reduced health care costs and a safer society. Then, think about some of the other social benefits: imagine how much we’ll learn from each other when we share rides instead of sitting in isolation in our cars. Talking to the neighbors might come back into fashion. More people will meet and talk and maybe even help each other. Having someone else drive us will also give us more time for reading books and newspapers. So, park your car and use it for your dream vacation. No more fumbling for change, just hop on and off the streetcar or bus wherever and whenever you like. What a great idea, especially for those who live in crowded, polluted cities. It will renew life on our streets. So I can’t agree more with this proposition. Let’s go for it!
Read aloud the following text.
The Importance of Rainforests
Rainforests are one of the most complicated environments on Earth. They are recognized worldwide as containing the richest source of plants and animals and are believed to contain nearly three-quarters of all the varieties of life on Earth. This is remarkable because rainforests cover only about six per cent of the Earth’s land surface. Rainforest are the oldest major ecosystem, having survived climate changes for more than one million years. They provide habitats for more species of plants, animals, insects and birds than any other environment found on our planet. Scientists estimate that between 60 and 90 per cent of all species of life are to be found in rain forests. Unfortunately, the widespread gradually releasing the water over time into streams and rivers. This helps to control soil erosion and flooding. Rainforests are vital to the Earth in helping to recycle carbon and oxygen. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the gas put into the air globally by humans, mainly by the burning of fossil fuels (for example in cars and factories).
Rainforests are able to remove carbon dioxide from the air and return oxygen in its place. This is why our global rainforests are often called the Earth’s ‘lungs’. Rainforests are major producers of the Earth’s oxygen. In fact, scientists believe that nearly 50 per cent of the Earth’s oxygen is produced by destruction of many of the world’s rainforests has caused a significant decline in the number of plant and animal species on Earth.
Rainforests influence both our local and global climates. For example, between 50 and 80 per cent of the moisture in the air above rainforests comes from the rainforest’s trees. If large areas of these lush rainforests are cleared, the average rainfall in the area will drop. Eventually, the area’s climate will get hotter and drier. This process could convert rainforests into a sparse grassland or desert. Rainforests are also able to absorb over 90 per cent of the rainfall in their leaves and mosses. By doing this, they are able to slow down water run-off by rainforest in the Amazon region alone. Nearly 40 per cent of the world’s carbon is contained in the trees of the rainforests. As rainforests are cut down and burned, carbon dioxide is released into the Earth’s atmosphere. Eventually, as this gas builds up the atmosphere, leading to what scientists call the enhanced greenhouse effect. To sum up, the role of the rainforest is essential for human life. It creates equilibrium in our environment and its resources are significant for human beings survival.
Decide in which paragraph you can find the following information.
1. The economic purposes rainforests are used for
2. The percentage of the world’s food supplies which originate in rainforests areas
3. Fruits originating from rainforests
4. Activities that people do in rainforests
5. Sickness and diseases which are treated with medicines from the rainforests
6. Industrial products that originate from the rainforests
7. Daily products which are produced from plants growing in rain forest areas
8. The area of rainforests which are being destroyed each year for economic purposes
The following text consists of five paragraphs, but they are not in correct order. Arrange them into a good text.
1. The global average air temperature near the Earth’s surface rose 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes “most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations via the greenhouse effect. Natural phenomena such as solar variation combined with volcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect from 1950 onward. These basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least thirty scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries. While individual scientists have voiced disagreement with some findings of the IPCC, the overwhelming majority of scientists working on climate change agree with the IPCC’s main conclusions.
2. Increasing global temperature will cause sea levels to rise, and is expected to increase the intensity of extreme weather events and to change the amount and pattern of precipitation. Other effects of global warming include changes in agricultural yields, trade routes, glacier retreat, species extinction and increases in the ranges of disease vectors.
3. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.
4. Remaining scientific uncertainties include the amount of warming expected in the future, and how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but there is ongoing political and public debate worldwide regarding what, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to its expected consequences.
5. Climate model projections summarized by the IPCC indicate that average global surface temperature will likely rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-first century. The range of values results from the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions as well as models with differing climate sensitivity. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100, warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a thousand years even if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized. The delay in reaching equilibrium is a result of the large heat capacity of the oceans.
Answer the following questions based on the paragraphs you have just arranged.
1. What is a suitable title for the text?
2. What is the topic of the text?
3. What is the main idea of each paragraph?
4. What is the conclusion of the text?
Study the text and the explanation. Access to Clean Water:
A Problem for
Access to clean water is one of
‘s biggest problem. According to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Report 2007, published by the National Development Planning Board, piped water is accessible to 30.8 per cent of households in the country’s cities and 9 per cent in its villages. Such figures show the limitations of the municipality’ water service provider, PDAM. Lack of investment in clean water is one reason Indonesia
PDAM gives for its limited outreach. Based on a government statement, to meet the MDGs target by 2015,
needs Rp 43 trillion (US$4.6 billion) in clean water funding. The government currently provides Rp500 billion. In order to close the funding gap, the government expects private investment in drinking water infrastructure. The need for clean water funding is something that cannot be covered by private investment. In Indonesia , most PDAM utilities have small scales of economy and are therefore unattractive to investors. Indonesia
There is no evidence to suggest private investors will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water services, whereas the government has a duty to do so. Increasing public funding for clean water infrastructure is the most rational approach for
. This effort should begin with an analysis of the needs of locals. This should be done through a democratic and participatory process. Indonesia
There are resources and mechanisms the government could employ to increase clean water funding, such as state and local budgets, grants, government bonds and community-public partnership. In order to use a grant system, the government should improve its proposal management and clearly focus on real needs in order to widen clean water services.
PDAM could use existing funds more efficiently. if it could reduce leakages from 40 per cent to 20 percent, it would have more disposable funds to invest in infrastructure. PDAM should use cost recovery principles, as long as costs are not passed on to consumers. Cost recovery principles should also be supported by a proper subsidy mechanism. Bond investing is a traditional lending instrument for public services. The mechanism needs conditions, such as strong capital structure at local level.
A few of mechanisms in place now do help the poor access clean water at affordable prices. The most important thing is to make sure the mechanisms run properly and that the needs of people at the local level are met through appropriate funding.
Elaborate on the following main ideas as an analytical exposition text. Work with a partner.
1. Types of Pollution
2. Air Pollution
3. Water Pollution
4. Soil Pollution